Generally, there are six grades of white water rafting ranges from simple to very dangerous and potential death or serious injuries. The first grade is very simple and is done on very small areas while the sixth grade is the most challenging and dangerous in which rafters face substantial white water, huge waves, rocks and hazards.
White water kayaks are different from normal or sea kayaks as they are specialized to deal with moving water. Whitewater kayaks are rotomoulded from tough and high impact plastic usually polyethylene. They are carefully constructed to ensure that the boat remains structurally sound when subjected to fast-moving water. The plastic hull allows these kayaks to bounce off rocks without leaking, although they scratch and eventually wear through with enough use. Whitewater kayaks range from four to ten feet (1.2 to 3.0 m) long.
A whitewater kayak generally includes equipment like, paddles, twist or feather and shaft. Along with that, there are gears like a buoyancy aid, personal floatation device, helmet, spray deck, etc. Apart from that, there exist the safety-gears including a rope throw bag, a knife, a safety whistle and nose clips, which are very much necessary for the safety of the boater. The boater is generally dressed in a wetsuit or in a dry suit, according to water temperature.
Generally there are two types of whitewater kayak: play boat and creek boat, but most experienced paddlers own creek boat, which is used for running narrow, low-volume waterways. They are longer and have far more volume than play boats, which makes them more stable, faster and higher-floating for hardcore paddlers. Many paddlers use creek boats in 'short boat' downriver races, and they are often seen on large rivers where their extra stability and speed is necessary to get through rapids.